History and etymology of diamonds
Since 1600, when they became known as the greatest of all gems, diamonds have never lost their primacy. The diamond, from Greek "adamas - invincible", is made of carbon with a melting point of approximately 4000°C. The first diamonds were extracted over 2800 years ago in India, while the modern mining industry began with the discovery of South African mines in the 19th century.
Diamonds are formed deep in the depths of the earth. Like other gems, the diamond is a crystal formed by atoms and molecules that acquire an orderly arrangement during the fusion and cooling stages. Externally, the crystals acquire geometric forms limited by natural polygonal faces. Eras of tremendous geologic upheaval caused the formation of diamonds: carbon was crystallized in the Earth's great depths as a result of very high temperatures.
The predominance of these supreme gems benefitted greatly from increasingly perfect cutting and polishing techniques available today, due to expert goldsmiths able to exalt all the diamonds best features.